|Barómetro issue 28, January - March 2012
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(in Spanish) Armed conflicts
- At the end of the quarter the total number of active armed conflicts was 37. Most took place in Asia (11) and Africa (13), followed by Middle East (seven), Europe (five), and America (one). India (Assam) was no longer considered as an armed conflict due to the reduction of violence, while violence in Mali increased to armed conflict levels.
- The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad declared the independence of northern Mali after having taken control of major cities.
- The establishment of community militias with access to modern weaponry and military training further aggravated the violence in South Sudan.
- The dynamics of violence persisted in Libya in a highly unstable context, killing more than a hundred people in the last quarter.
- Insurgent violence in Pakistan increased, amid a context exacerbated by internal political-military crisis.
- The Kurdish armed group PKK announced a new phase of "resistance", it stated their opposition to the Turkish state and raised the relevance to dissociate themselves from it.
- The conflict between AQAP, Yemeni security forces and some tribes saw a significant escalation of violence, with more than 400 deaths.
- The situation in Syria continued to deteriorate, leaving almost 8,000 dead since the crisis began in March 2011.
- In late March, the total number of socio-political crises was 88, mostly in Africa (32) and Asia (23). The rest took place in Europe (15), Middle East (11) and America (seven).
- The power vacuum created by the death of President of Guinea-Bissau was used by the military to stage a new coup.
- The chances of a restart in the conflict between Eritrea and Ethiopia escalated as a result of Ethiopian military action in Eritrean territory.
- The mutual military invasions and Sudanese bombing on the common border between Sudan and South Sudan posed risk for an open war in view of increased accusations and threats between their leaders.
- Shining Path suffered one of the hardest blows of recent years, with the capture of "Comrade Artemio," leader of the faction of the group in the Upper Huallaga.
- Political violence increased in the Indonesian regions of West Papua and Aceh, in the second case because of the electoral process.
- The escalating crisis between Iran and several countries due to Tehran's nuclear program led to threats, military maneuvers and new sanctions.
- The first attempt by the Nigerian government to establish a dialogue with the Islamist group Boko Haram ends unsuccessfully and with the withdrawal of the chief mediator.
- Somali leaders that gathered in Puntland reached an agreement on the peace process roadmap for the country.
- The Taliban of Afghanistan announced the temporary suspension of negotiations with the US government.
- In Assam (India), about 700 insurgents from nine armed opposition groups surrendered their weapons, as a prelude to peace negotiations.
- In Myanmar, the leaders of the armed group ABSDF held negotiations with the government for the first time, and the government also offered informal talks to Karenni armed opposition group KNPP, with which it had never come to any cease-fire. The Government and the NMSP signed a four point agreement after three rounds of negotiations.
- Serbia and Kosovo reached an agreement on the representation of Kosovo in regional forums.
- Contacts between Palestinian and Israeli delegations in Jordan failed.
Gender issues in peace building
- The UN Secretary General presented his report on sexual violence in armed conflict, which for the first time includes a list of different armed parties, from governments and opposition, responsible for sexual violence crimes.
- Two MINUSTAH Pakistani police officers were convicted in Haiti by a Pakistani military court on charges of sexual violence.
- The group Women of the World for Peace promoted the release of a group of ten members of Colombian security forces kidnapped by the FARC.
- Somali women's organizations in the United Kingdom demanded the participation of women in the peace process in Somalia to be ensured.
- Basque women of the political sphere published a joint article in the press highlighting the need to build peace in the Basque Country based on social plurality.